Ways to increase the wear resistance of pistons of internal combustion engines (review)


  • T.V. Dudchak Podolsk Agricultural and Technical University




engine, piston, fluoroplastic, construction, wear resistance, piston skirt, restoration, deformation, remelting, cylinder, strength, rigidity, durability


The article analyzes the materials from which the piston is made for internal combustion engines. For automobile and tractor engines, in particular, eutectoid mixtures of the AL25 type and eutectoid mixtures containing copper, nickel, magnesium and manganese are used. The chemical composition of aluminum alloys is given.  Pistons for high-speed, forced diesel, medium-speed engines are made of gray or malleable cast iron (SCh24-44, SCh28-48, SC32-53), as well as alloyed with additives of vanadium, chromium, titanium, copper (RF45-5). Heat-resistant steels of the 20Kh3VMF type are used for combined pistons.  Research work is being carried out on pistons made of titanium and carbon fiber. Pistons with automatic adjustment of the degree of compression can limit the thermal and mechanical stress of the parts of the cylinder-piston group, boost the engine at an average effective pressure of 1.5-2 times, improve starting quality, provide the ability to use different brands of fuel. A combined piston with copper-fluoroplastic inserts is available for internal combustion engines, compressors, pumps and other reciprocating machines. Inserts made of copper-fluoroplastic composition provide the application of a thin film of copper on the friction surface throughout the life of the engine, which significantly accelerates running, reduces burrs and abrasions, increases wear resistance and durability of CNG parts. The main disadvantages and advantages of the performance characteristics of pistons made of different materials. The analysis of designs of pistons is made. The main requirements for the design of pistons are: simplicity of design, and if possible to ensure symmetry about the axis of the cylinder, minimum weight, maximum strength and rigidity, wear resistance of the material, efficient heat dissipation (cooling); minimum cost of production. The main defects of the piston are: the height of the first groove, the diameter of the hole under the piston pin, the diameter of the skirt.


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How to Cite

Dudchak, T. (2021). Ways to increase the wear resistance of pistons of internal combustion engines (review). Problems of Tribology, 26(4/102), 20–27. https://doi.org/10.31891/2079-1372-2021-102-4-20-27