Evaluation of the wear of the duckfoot sweep cultivator blades and the technology of their hardening
In recent years, research and developments related to the creation of new areas using nanotechnology take a special place in scientific achievements. They are developed and widely used in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Electronics, Medicine, Food Production and to a much lesser extent in Engineering. This is due to the fact that there are different requirements to parts and products used in mechanical engineering, they have a complex shape, are made of different materials, production methods, heat treatment. While operating, their working layer undergoes degradation with a significant change in structure and their hardening using nanocoatings may turn out to be ineffective in both technical and economic aspects. In this case, only a specific approach, which is determined by comprehensive research with identification of the main factors of parts damageability in specific production and operation conditions, can be expedient. In addition, in some cases for hardening, repair and restoration of parts it is expedient to use surfacing methods with the introduction of modifying agents in a liquid bath during crystallization. These modifying agents are nano-and dispersed diamonds, which make it possible to adjust temperature parameters of crystallization, grain size, and stress level. This approach allows using high-alloyed, high-carbon electrodes even for thin-walled steel and cast iron products. In this case, the diamond inclusions additive plays the role of micro-refrigerators, which significantly change the crystallization temperature range. It is important to determine the optimal dose of the introduction of such a modifier and ensure uniform distribution the components in the coating. The presented work is devoted to the new technology development of hardening of cultivator blades metal with nano- and dispersed diamond additives, which are the part of the detonation charge from the disposal of ammunition. Nowadays, in agriculture, a large number of tillage implements are used for tillage, the working bodies of which are sweep blades. They are operated under conditions of abrasive particles impact, and this is accompanied by their intense wear with a corresponding change in the geometric dimensions of the main working surfaces. The worn sweep blades significantly reduce efficiency and quality of the carried-out work. The analysis of the effective choice of surfacing materials for hardening and improving their performance has been carried out and the nature of wear has been evaluated in order to identify areas of maximum damage and to determine the optimal method. It is known that T-590 and T-620 electrodes are used for the restoration surfacing of tillage implements. It was found the hardfacing of thin-walled parts is accompanied by a smaller heat sink and, in some cases, they are flooded with defect formation. To reduce it, a non-magnetic fraction of detonation charge from ammunition disposal in the form of an electrode modification was introduced, which ensured the uniform distribution the components in the coating. The method of the X-ray electron-probe analysis has been used to evaluate features of structure formation and component distribution along the perimeter of the coating. It was found out that this method of hardening reduces heat input and increases the microhardness and wear resistance of the surfaced coating, reduces the transition zone and thermal impact. The recommended method of metal hardening of new cultivator blades is to apply stripes on the point tip and wings of blades. On the basis of the nature of wear, the expediency of applying stripes on the point tip of the cultivator blade from the front side, and on wings from the rear side, is justified. The optimal geometrical dimensions of hardening stripes and their location on the blade are presented, which allows minimizing the local stresses and increasing wear resistance
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