Influence of filter elements on the operation of tribomechanical systems
Oil filter is a part of a gasoline or diesel engine lubrication system designed to clean the engine oil.
Depending on where it is installed, the oil filtration system, they are divided into three types:
- through-flow filter, which passes through all the oil that the pump feeds into the engine. A pressure regulating by-pass valve is installed upstream of the filter to protect the gaskets with oil seals. If the filter element is too dirty, the valve directs oil flow past the filter, preventing oil starvation of the bearings. Keeps engine from failing due to lack of lubrication;
- a partial-flow filter is mounted parallel to the main oil line and cleans only a portion of the oil that enters the engine. Gradually the whole volume of oil passes through the filter element, giving a fairly high cleaning efficiency. However, this method does not provide absolute protection of parts from chips and other abrasives;
- the combination filter combines a full-flow and a partial-flow cleaning principle. It consists of two filter elements, one mounted parallel to the oil line and the other cut into it. This ensures maximum cleaning efficiency and long filter life. The filter elements are divided into two types according to their efficiency in removing fine impurities: coarse filters, which remove coarse impurities, and fine filters, which remove fine impurities. According to the design of the housing and the possibility of replacing the filter element, filters are divided into multiple (collapsible) and disposable (non-collapsible). Modern engines may use filters in the form of a cartridge, which is inserted into a special compartment.
During operation, the oil is first routed to the filter and then through the oil channels to the interacting parts in the engine. This principle is used on all standard passenger cars. A settling filter (gravity filter) is a tank with a filter element and a settling tank in which impurities are deposited by gravity. The centrifugal filter operates similarly to the gravity filter, only dirt settles in it under the action of centrifugal force resulting from the rotation of the body
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